The archaeological site of the Chinese Kiln and Market Garden, Bendigo North, contains the partially demolished remains of a Chinese cross-draught brick kiln and artefacts associated with the use of the kiln between 1859 and the 1880s.
Newspaper records indicate that the kiln was constructed by the A'Fok, Fok Sing and Co in 1859 when the site was immediately south east of the large Chinese camp known as Ironbark, established in 1855. The kiln appears to have been in use until the 1880s when a market garden was established on the site, the land having been acquired by Ah Jet in 1884. The market garden was abandoned around 1950 however several trees on the site still reflect this commercial use. The current owners purchased the land in the late 1970s.
Partial archaeological excavation of the site in late 2005 revealed the remains of a large domed clay brick kiln built into the bank in the west of the site. The arched firebox leading to the firing chamber is at least 1.5 metres deep and buried along with the fire box, flue, and lower section of the circular firing chamber which is estimated to be around 10 metres in diameter, extending under Thunder Street. The kiln originally stood about 10 metres high but the top of the dome has been partially demolished during construction of the road. The design of the kiln strongly suggests Asian, probably Chinese, technology especially in the construction of the wall-through firebox.
Excavation on the kiln also revealed artefacts associated with the use of the kiln including brick fragments. Bricks used in the construction of a garden wall in Rowan Street Bendigo are thought to have been manufactured in the kiln.
Excavation of the later deposit which has filled the firebox and a transect of test excavations across the site revealed a dense in situ deposit of mainly late 19th century artefacts such as English and Chinese ceramics, including a number of complete or near complete large earthenware jars, Chinese glass gaming counters and bottle glass related to use of the site as a market garden and residence from the 1880s.
Trees on the site that date to the use of the area as a market garden are a Fig (Ficus carica), Pear (Pyrus communis cv.)and Licorice.
How is it significant?
The Chinese Kiln and Market Garden, Bendigo North is of archaeological and historical significance to the State of Victoria
Why is it significant?
The Chinese Kiln and Market Garden is of archaeological significance to the State of Victoria being the only known surviving Chinese brick kiln in Victoria and possibly in Australia. Chinese brick kilns are considered extremely rare outside the Chinese mainland.
The Chinese Kiln and Market Garden is of historical significance for its association with Chinese settlement in Bendigo and as tangible evidence of the lives and enterprise of Chinese immigrants who came in large numbers to the Victorian goldfields during the second half of the 19th century. Along with the nearby Bendigo Joss House or Chinese Temple (H1791), the Chinese Kiln and Market Garden is historically significant for its association with the large Chinese camp of Ironbark, established in 1855 and the only Chinese Camp in Bendigo to have persisted into the 20th century.
Test excavation on the site has demonstrated the very high archaeological potential of the Chinese Kiln and Market Garden site to provide information about the processes and technology of 19th century brick manufacture that the Chinese bought with them to Australia and the operations of a late 19th century Chinese market garden. Excavated artefacts such as gaming tokens also demonstrate the archaeological potential of the site to provide insight into the lives of Chinese Australians who lived and worked on the site and more generally the economy and social life of the 19th century Chinese camp of Ironbark.
General Conditions: 1. All exempted alterations are to be planned and carried out in a manner which prevents damage to the fabric of the registered placeand objects.General Conditions: 2. Should it become apparent during further inspection or the carrying out of works that original or previously hidden or inaccessible details of the place or object are revealed which relate to the significance of the place or object, then the exemption covering such works shall cease and Heritage Victoria shall be notified as soon as possible. Note: All archaeological places have the potential to contain significant sub-surface artefacts and other remains. In most cases it will be necessary to obtain approval from the Executive Director, Heritage Victoria before the undertaking any works that have a significant sub-surface component.General Conditions: 3. If there is a conservation policy and plan endorsed by the Executive Director, all works shall be in accordance with it. Note: The existence of a Conservation Management Plan or a Heritage Action Plan endorsed by the Executive Director, Heritage Victoria provides guidance for the management of the heritage values associated with the site. It may not be necessary to obtain a heritage permit for certain works specified in the management plan.General Conditions: 4. Nothing in this determination prevents the Executive Director from amending or rescinding all or any of the permit exemptions.General Conditions: 5. Nothing in this determination exempts owners or their agents from the responsibility to seek relevant planning or building permits from the responsible authorities where applicable.Regular Site Maintenance : The following site maintenance works are permit exempt under section 66 of the Heritage Act 1995: a) regular site maintenance provided the works do not involve the removal or destruction of any significant above-ground features,remnant market garden trees on the siteor sub-surface archaeological artefacts or deposits; b) the maintenance of an item to retain its conditions or operation without the removal of or damage to the existing fabric or the introduction of new materials; c) cleaning including the removal of surface deposits, organic growths, or graffiti by the use of low pressure water and natural detergents and mild brushing and scrubbing; d) repairs, conservation and maintenance to plaques, memorials, roads and paths, fences and gates and drainage and irrigation. e) the replacement of existing services such as cabling, plumbing, wiring and fire services that uses existing routes, conduits or voids, and does not involve damage to or the removal of significant fabric. Note: Surface patina which has developed on the fabric may be an important part of the item's significance and if so needs to be preserved during maintenance and cleaning. Note: Any new materials used for repair must not exacerbate the decay of existing fabric due to chemical incompatibility, obscure existing fabric or limit access to existing fabric for future maintenance. Repair must maximise protection and retention of fabric and include the conservation of existing details or elements.Fire Suppression Duties : The following fire suppression duties are permit exempt under section 66 of the Heritage Act 1995, a) Fire suppression and fire fighting duties provided the works do not involve the removal or destruction of any significant above-ground features or sub-surface archaeological artefacts or deposits; b) Fire suppression activities such as fuel reduction burns, and fire control line construction, provided all significant historical and archaeological features are appropriately recognised and protected; Note: Fire management authorities should be aware of the location, extent and significance of historical and archaeological places when developing fire suppression and fire fighting strategies. The importance of places listed in the Heritage Register must be considered when strategies for fire suppression and management are being developed.Weed and Vermin Control : The following weed and vermin control activities are permit exempt under section 66 of the Heritage Act 1995, a) Weed and vermin control activities provided the works do not involve the removal or destruction of any significant above-ground features or sub-surface archaeological artefacts or deposits; Note: Particular care must be taken with weed and vermin control works where such activities may have a detrimental affect on the significant fabric of a place. Such works may include the removal of ivy, moss or lichen from an historic structure or feature, or the removal of burrows from a site that has archaeological values.Public Safety and Security : The following public safety and security activities are permit exempt under section 66 of the Heritage Act 1995, a) public safety and security activities provided the works do not involve the removal or destruction of any significant above-ground structures or sub-surface archaeological artefacts or deposits; b) the erection of temporary security fencing, scaffolding, hoardings or surveillance systems to prevent unauthorised access or secure public safety which will not adversely affect significant fabric of the place including archaeological features; c) development including emergency stabilisation necessary to secure safety where a site feature has been irreparably damaged or destabilised and represents a safety risk to its users or the public. Note: Urgent or emergency site works are to be undertaken by an appropriately qualified specialist such as a structural engineer, or other heritage professional.Signage and Site Interpretation : The following Signage and Site Interpretation activities are permit exempt under section 66 of the Heritage Act 1995, a) signage and site interpretation activities provided the works do not involve the removal or destruction of any significant above-ground structures or sub-surface archaeological artefacts or deposits; b) the erection of non-illuminated signage for the purpose of ensuring public safety or to assist in the interpretation of the heritage significance of the place or object and which will not adversely affect significant fabric including landscape or archaeological features of the place or obstruct significant views of and from heritage values or items; c) signage and site interpretation products must be located and be of a suitable size so as not to obscure or damage significant fabric of the place; d) signage and site interpretation products must be able to be later removed without causing damage to the significant fabric of the place; Note: The development of signage and site interpretation products must be consistent in the use of format, text, logos, themes and other display materials. Note: Where possible, the signage and interpretation material should be consistent with other schemes developed on similar or associated sites. It may be necessary to consult with land managers and other stakeholders concerning existing schemes and strategies for signage and site interpretation.Mineral Exploration : The following Mineral Exploration activities are permit exempt under section 66 of the Heritage Act 1995, a) mineral Exploration activities provided the works do not involve the removal or destruction of any significant above-ground features or sub-surface archaeological artefacts or deposits; b) preliminary non-intrusive exploration, including geological mapping, geophysical surveys, and geochemical sampling and access to shafts and adits; c) advanced forms of exploration (drilling), including the location of drill pads and access tracks where this has been the subject of on-site negotiation and agreement with representatives of Heritage Victoria, DSE and Parks Victoria, and where all significant historic site features have been identified and protected as part of an approved work plan.Minor Works : Note: Any Minor Works that in the opinion of the Executive Director will not adversely affect the heritage significance of the place may be exempt from the permit requirements of the Heritage Act. A person proposing to undertake minor works may submit a proposal to the Executive Director. If the Executive Director is satisfied that the proposed works will not adversely affect the heritage values of the site, the applicant may be exempted from the requirement to obtain a heritage permit. If an applicant is uncertain whether a heritage permit is required, it is recommended that the permits co-ordinator be contacted.
Management and maintenance of the general living landscape, including shrubberies, borders and turf.
Management and maintenance of trees including formative and remedial pruning, removal of deadwood, pest and disease control, cabling (and similar supportive works), and planting and removal.
Management of trees in accordance with Australian Standard; Pruning of Amenity Trees AS 4373.
The process of gardening, mowing, hedge clipping, bedding displays, removal of dead plants, disease and weed control, emergency and safety works.
Vegetation protection and management of the possum population.
Removal of plants listed as noxious weeds in the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994.
Emergency or safety works to plants, structures, paths, drainage, services or other components.
CHINESE KILN & MARKET GARDEN - Permit Exemption Policy
The Chinese Kiln and Market Garden, Bendigo North,is an archaeological site (Heritage Inventory No. H7724-0600). The entire site has high archaeological potential and is of significance in reflecting the 19th and 20th century use of the site by the Bendigo Chinese community for the manufacture of bricks and as a market garden. It is important that works that may impact on the surviving below ground archaeological deposits and/or the remnant market garden trees are subject to the permit process and a permit must be obtained for all works in the area of the registered land that may impact on the trees and subsurface deposits.
The permit policy requires that the archaeological material recovered from the Chinese Kiln and Market Gardensite be housed and conserved so as to maintain its cultural heritage significance. The temporary relocation, movement or external loan of registered objects and/or their conservation by agencies or individuals other than Heritage Victoria will require permit approval by the Executive Director pursuant to the Heritage Act 1995.