Statement of Significance
What is significant?
Mawallok (also spelt Mawallock, Mahkwallok and Mawhallock) station of about 28,000 acres (now 5,851 acres) was acquired by Alexander Russell and Co. in 1847 and remained in the Russell family until 1980 when it was purchased by the present owners. Alexander's brother George Russell established Golf Hill in 1842 and other family members settled at Stoneleigh, Elderslie, Carngham, Barunah Plans, Native Creek No. 2 and Langi Kal Kal.
The pre-emptive right for Mawallok was granted in 1858. By this time the first wing of the homestead was built, as were the woolshed, stables, overseer's hut, dip and two dams. The dams were fed by a spring, reputedly the third largest spring in Victoria.
The original homestead was extended in the 1860s with a bluestone wing and cellar. A number of early structures remain on the property including the original homestead and outbuildings, the bluestone gable-roofed and dormer windowed stables, bluestone coach house, the stone and iron woolshed and iron meat house.
Alexander Russell died in 1869 and his son Philip Russell inherited Mawallok. Phillip Russell, and then from 1932 his son Alex Russell (1892-1961), were responsible for major changes at Mawallok. In 1907-08 the Arts and Crafts homestead was built to a design prepared by architects Klingender and Alsop, and the garden laid out to a plan prepared by William Guilfoyle, Director of the Melbourne Botanic Gardens in 1909.
The large house was constructed in reinforced concrete, an early use of this material for a domestic residence. It has an asymmetrical composition with a dominant steep roof form featuring gables, gabled dormers and tall chimneys. The interior includes notable elements such as the handsome Arts and Crafts inspired timber staircase leading to a timber-balustraded upstairs gallery which overlooks the large living space below. Around 1927 the Melbourne engineer and World War I General Sir John Monash was commissioned to extend a small dam into a 22 acre lake. The pump house and a small shed were built in similar materials and style to the 1908 house. The raised terrace of the house looks across the sweep of lawn and lake to the distant vista of the Pyrenees Ranges and Mt Cole.
Alex Russell studied engineering at Cambridge and later served in both World Wars. In 1932 Alex and his wife Jess moved to Mawallok. Alex, pastoralist, soldier, golfer and golf course designer, developed Mawallok's merino stud. In the 1930s the view to the lake and beyond to Mt Cole was enhanced with the removal from the main lawn of several Canary Island Date Palms included on Guilfoyle's plan and the construction of a ha-ha wall between the garden and a six-hole golf course.
The Guilfoyle garden is protected by windbreaks of Monterey Pines, Aleppo Pines, Monterey Cypress, Sugar Gums, and Osage Orange, Cypress and Privet hedges and stone walls. The designed landscape reflects 18th century English picturesque design principles and later gardenesque elements, and includes both formal and informal design features. The design included a lawn and en-tout-cas tennis courts, curved and straight paths, rockery and pond, terrace flagstones and bluestone steps, pergola, sundial, urns and informally shaped shrubberies around the edge of a broad sweeping lawn. Later garden changes include a ha-ha wall, stone and timber pergola, and redesign of the terrace steps. A pleached lime walk designed by John Patrick was established in 1992. The former rose parterre on the east lawn has been removed and replaced with a Copper Beech. In March 1996 James Guilfoyle, grandson of William Guilfoyle, planted a Chinese Windmill Palm.
The garden is planted with a vast array of trees and shrubs, and herbaceous plants and bulbs. The plantings include conifers, palms, deciduous and evergreen species, with variegated and coloured foliage, strap and contrasting leaves, and colourful flowering plants. An outstanding Horse Chestnut dominates the main lawn, and the lawn is framed with Algerian Oaks and Pin Oaks and densely planted shrubberies with Pittosporum, Waterhousea, Laurus, Prunus, Arbutus, Corynocarpus, Alectryon, Cupressus, Erythrina, Fraxinus, Magnolia, Ulmus, and Cedrus. There are fine specimen trees of Liriodendron, Liquidambar, Betula, Metasequoia, Tilia, Cedrus, Platanus, Populus, Quercus, Ulmus and 3 old Morus nigra trees.
How is it significant?
Mawallok is of historical, aesthetic, architectural and social significance to the State of Victoria.
Why is it significant?
Mawallok is of aesthetic and historical significance as an outstanding example of a designed landscape. Mawallok, with its extensive windbreak plantings, hedges, stones walls, gateways, drives, gravel courtyard, its Guilfoyle garden, lake and views to Mt Cole, is amongst the finest and largest gardens in Victoria. William Guilfoyle, arguably Australia greatest garden designer, laid out the Royal Botanic Gardens from 1873-1909. Mawallok is his last known, and perhaps his grandest, homestead garden design, completed towards the end of his remarkable career.
Mawallok is of historical significance for its associations with the early pastoral settlement of Victoria and with the Russell family, important pastoralists in the early settlement of rural Victoria. The different phases of construction of the original homestead and the 1908 Arts and Crafts house and 1909 garden demonstrate the development of a successful pastoral station. The significance of the place is enhanced by the retention of the original homestead, woolshed, stables, coach house and other outbuildings and the intactness of the house and garden.
The 1908 house at Mawallok is of architectural significance as an important example of the Arts and Crafts style and for its early use of concrete in Victoria.
Mawallok is of social significance as an exceptional example of the Guilfoyle style, important in the study of garden history and landscape design in Victoria. It is highly valued by students, visitors and the community.
MAWALLOK - Plaque Citation
Mawallok station was acquired by Alexander Russell in 1847. In 1907-08 the Arts and Crafts homestead was built to a design by Klingender and Alsop, and the garden laid out in 1909 to a plan by William Guilfoyle.
MAWALLOK - Permit ExemptionsGeneral Exemptions:General exemptions apply to all places and objects included in the Victorian Heritage Register (VHR). General exemptions have been designed to allow everyday activities, maintenance and changes to your property, which don’t harm its cultural heritage significance, to proceed without the need to obtain approvals under the Heritage Act 2017.Specific exemptions may also apply to your registered place or object. If applicable, these are listed below. Specific exemptions are tailored to the conservation and management needs of an individual registered place or object and set out works and activities that are exempt from the requirements of a permit. Specific exemptions prevail if they conflict with general exemptions. Find out more about heritage permit exemptions here.Specific Exemptions:General Conditions: 1. All exempted alterations are to be planned and carried out in a manner which prevents damage to the fabric of the registered place or object. General Conditions: 2. Should it become apparent during further inspection or the carrying out of works that original or previously hidden or inaccessible details of the place or object are revealed which relate to the significance of the place or object, then the exemption covering such works shall cease and Heritage Victoria shall be notified as soon as possible. General Conditions: 3. If there is a conservation policy and plan endorsed by the Executive Director, all works shall be in accordance with it. Note: The existence of a Conservation Management Plan or a Heritage Action Plan endorsed by the Executive Director, Heritage Victoria provides guidance for the management of the heritage values associated with the site. It may not be necessary to obtain a heritage permit for certain works specified in the management plan. General Conditions: 4. Nothing in this determination prevents the Executive Director from amending or rescinding all or any of the permit exemptions. General Conditions: 5. Nothing in this determination exempts owners or their agents from the responsibility to seek relevant planning or building permits from the responsible authorities where applicable. Minor Works : Note: Any Minor Works that in the opinion of the Executive Director will not adversely affect the heritage significance of the place may be exempt from the permit requirements of the Heritage Act. A person proposing to undertake minor works may submit a proposal to the Executive Director. If the Executive Director is satisfied that the proposed works will not adversely affect the heritage values of the site, the applicant may be exempted from the requirement to obtain a heritage permit. If an applicant is uncertain whether a heritage permit is required, it is recommended that the permits co-ordinator be contacted.
Repairs and construction of sheds, fencing and gates provided that the works do not adversely affect the fabric or appearance of the registered buildings.
Geelong Road and Mawallok Entrance Road reserve
All road works required for maintenance and safety, drainage and culvert works, road and shoulder reconstruction, pavement works, fire breaks and fuel reduction and road signage.
The process of gardening, including mowing, hedge clipping, bedding displays, removal of dead plants and replanting the same species or cultivar, disease and weed control, and maintenance to care for existing plants.
Replanting to maintain the landscape character identified in the Statement of Significance.
In the event of the loss of any plant in the Statement of Significance, replanting with the same plant as that removed.
Management of trees in accordance with Australian Standard; Pruning of amenity trees AS 4373.
Repairs, conservation and maintenance to hard landscape elements, buildings, structures, sculptures, fountains, monuments, ornaments, roads and paths, edges, fences and gates, drainage and irrigation systems.
Repainting in the same colour of previously painted surfaces.
Removal of elements not identified as being significant, and not within the registered land.
Removal of plants listed as noxious weeds in the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994.
Non-structural works and installation, removal or replacement of garden watering and drainage systems that occur at a distance greater than 5 metres from the canopy edge of a significant tree, plant or hedge,(structural works may require a permit if still on the registered land).
Pruning or removal of trees in accordance with the Code of Practice for Powerline Clearance[Vegetation] 1996, unless they are identified as significant.
Removal of vegetation to maintain fire safety and to conserve significant buildings and structures.
Interior of 1908 house and original homestead
Painting of previously painted walls and ceilings provided that preparation or painting does not remove evidence of any original paint or other decorative scheme.
Installation, removal or replacement of carpets and/or flexible floor coverings.
Installation, removal or replacement of curtain tracks, rods and blinds.
Installation, removal or replacement of hooks, nails and other devices for the hanging of mirrors, paintings and other wall mounted art or religious works or icons.
Demolition or removal of non-original stud/partition walls, suspended ceilings or non-original wall linings (including plasterboard, laminate and Masonite), bathroom partitions and tiling, sanitary fixtures and fittings, kitchen wall tiling and equipment, lights, built-in cupboards, cubicle partitions, computer and office fitout and the like.
Removal or replacement of non-original door and window furniture including, hinges, locks, knobsets and sash lifts.
Installation of stud walls, which are removable.
Refurbishment of existing bathrooms, toilets and kitchens including removal, installation or replacement of sanitary fixtures and associated piping, mirrors, wall and floor coverings.
Removal of tiling or concrete slabs in wet areas provided there is no damage to or alteration of original structure or fabric.
Installation, removal or replacement of ducted, hydronic or concealed radiant type heating provided that the installation does not damage existing skirtings and architraves and that the central plant is concealed.
Installation, removal or replacement of electrical wiring.
Installation, removal or replacement of electric clocks, public address systems, detectors, alarms, emergency lights, exit signs, luminaires and the like on plaster surfaces.
Installation, removal or replacement of bulk insulation in the roof space.
Installation of plant within the roof space.
Installation of new fire hydrant services including sprinklers, fire doors and elements affixed to plaster surfaces.
Interior of Cottage and Manager's Cottage
No permit is required for alterations that do not affect or alter the external appearance or fabric.
MAWALLOK - Permit Exemption Policy
The purpose of the permit exemptions is to allow works that do not impact on the heritage significance of the place to occur without the need for a permit. Works which impact on the significance of the place are subject to permit applications.
Future conservation and management of Mawallok Station should retain the extensive collection of buildings, structures and landscape features, stone walls and the early pastoral landscape character and windbreak plantings of Monterey Pines, Aleppo Pines, Monterey Cypress, Osage Orange and Sugar Gums and the elaborate 1909 Guilfoyle garden containing a wide variety of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants.
The significance of the homestead and garden is enhanced by the view across the Monash lake and the distant vista of the Pyreness ranges and Mt Cole. Management of the registered place should seek to retain and protect these views.
The preparation of a Conservation Management Plan would assist with the future management of the cultural significance of the place.
Ongoing maintenance to the outbuildings should not require a permit but major works may require permit approval or the written approval of the Executive Director. Conservation and restoration of original fabric and the relationship of buildings with each other is of primary importance. Additions to these buildings would require permit applications. The woolshed and stables still clearly illustrate the activities that were undertaken and continue to be undertaken. Any proposal that would alter the remaining layout of these buildings, and their understanding, should be avoided.
All works to non-registered buildings and structures (including demolition and internal modification) on registered land are permit exempt, but any additions would require permits.
Pastoral activities such as grazing are permit exempt.
'Altona' Homestead (Formerly 'Laverton' Homestead) and Logan ReserveHobsons Bay City