1. The Eltham Court House dates from the time when the town was largely self-contained. It was initiated in response to itinerant gold prospectors who turned to crime when their quest was unsuccessful. This type of localised solution is characteristic of the self-reliance preserved in Eltham today. The court house is an important symbol of the spirit which makes Eltham distinctive as a community.
2. The nature of the Court House planning and use of architectural devices make the building's function easily interpreted. The arrangement of rooms, with public entry and clerical rooms to the rear, and the use of raised floor levels throughout these spaces to signify relative rank is easily perceived. The distinction in entries, public, magistrate and person-in-custody, and the existing court furniture enhances appreciation of this building.
3. The Eltham Court House, built in 1860, is one of only two intact examples in the state of this simple design with projecting entry.
4. The building is of architectural significance because it retains intact early features. These include use of handmade bricks, simple decoration, roof trusses, timber ceiling boards, original windows, doors and associated hardware and a collection of court furniture. Additions to the court house have been done in a manner which did not interfere with the fabric of the original building.