ST JUDES ANGLICAN CHURCH
349-371 LYGON STREET and 221-239 PALMERSTON STREET and 2-34 KEPPEL STREET CARLTON, MELBOURNE CITY
Statement of Significance
In 1866 St Jude's Church was a temporary wooden structure erected for worship. From 1866-67 the chancel, four bays of the nave, and vestry of the current church were erected to the designs of architects Reed & Barnes. The contractor was John Pigdon. From 1869-70 the last four bays of the nave, balcony, narthex and crypt were erected. In 1874 the south porch and steps, area wall, iron railings and Lygon Street gates were erected. The church is a Gothic-polychrome building erected on a high bluestone plinth with dark hawthorn brick walls and red and cream brick quoining, diaperwork and window surrounds. The plastered interior includes a western gallery, an early pipe organ, and stained glass by several prominent makers, including Ferguson & Urie, Rogers & Hughes, Brooks Robinson, and William Montgomery. George Fincham of the firm Finch and Fincham built the pipe organ contained in St Jude's in 1866. It was installed in the west end gallery of St Jude's when it opened on 17 September 1872. The organ is enclosed in a painted timber case of roughly 2000 x 2000mm base and 2500mm height. The display pipes are of gilded metal with dust covers. In 1885 contractors Hiam & Sons constructed a portion of the Lower Hall to the designs of Mr James. The construction of the Lower Hall to its original design was never completed. In 1891 however an Upper Hall was erected abutting the Lower Hall to the designs of architects Reed Smart and Tappin. The designs of the Upper and Lower Halls are not as elaborate as the main church building, but are a simplified version of the details. The bricks on the Upper Hall around openings have been surfaced in different colours to imitate polychrome and the Lower Hall has bi-chrome brickwork.
How is it significant?
St Jude's Anglican Church is of architectural, aesthetic, historical and scientific significance to the State of Victoria.
Why is it significant?
St Jude's Anglican Church is of architectural significance as it is an early example of Gothic-polychrome and one of the first fully polychromatic brick churches in Australia. The exterior of the building demonstrates fully developed polychromy, with red and cream bricks against a brown background in quoining, diaperwork and window surrounds; the last deriving explicitly from Italian examples published by Street and Ruskin. The Reedian polychrome became the cradle for a whole family of innovative styles in red brick. St Jude's is of further architectural significance for its associations with the well-known firm Reed & Barnes. The firm later became Reed Smart & Tappin and was involved with the design of the Lower Hall. The Upper and Lower Halls, while not as elaborate are of significance for their architectural detailing derived from the main church building. St Judes Anglican Church is of aesthetic significance as a complex of early brick buildings, which are a prominent landmark in Carlton.
The Organ contained in St Judes Anglican Church is historically and scientifically important as an early substantially intact organ designed by leading nineteenth century Victorian organ builder George Fincham. Fincham arrived in Australia in 1852 and began his organ building business in 1862 in which he achieved a level of perfection in organ building such that his best organs were able to compare favourably with imported English organs. The organs hand-blowing apparatus still functions and the original key, stop, and combination actions are still present. Positions of four former fittings on the vertical pillars of the casework are visible and the timber organ bench still exists. St Judes Anglican Church is of historical significance as an intact complex of church buildings constructed before the turn of the century, demonstrating the early growth of the Church of England in Melbourne.
ST JUDES ANGLICAN CHURCH - HistoryContextual History:
Church of England
The largest denomination was that of the Church of England which enjoyed the prestige of an established church. The governor and most officials of the day belonged to it, and its bishops were accorded precedence over the ministers of other denominations. Its adherents formed around 35% of the population of Victoria in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Many of the church buildings in Victoria were Anglican, but they formed a smaller portion of the total number of church buildings than the percentage of Anglicans in the community (Lewis 1991, p.2).
According to history the organ developed from the syrinx or Pan-pipes. Organs began to appear in churches from about the tenth century onwards. The west end of the church did not become a standard location for the organ until the seventeenth century.(Shire Publications Limited 1993 p.5).
The builder of the St Jude’s Organ was George Fincham who became one of the leading organbuilders in nineteenth century Victoria. He arrived in Australia in 1852 but only began organbuilding business in 1862. and he achieved a level of perfection in organbuilding such that his best organs were able to compare favourably with imported English organs. About 35 Fincham organs from the nineteenth century are to be found in near-original form in Victoria.
The St Jude’s organ was built in 1868 and is an example of a first period Fincham organ. This organ is probably the earliest surviving example of a Fincham organ (Stiller, 1980, p.1-3).
The use of mixed colours of brickwork is an English tradition going back to Tudor times, but the contrasts were mild. The tradition was revived in the 1849’s by English Architects like SS Teulon, and locally by Nathaniel Billing in his St Margaret’s Church, Eltham.
High Victorian polychromy was very different in character and sprang from Northern Italy. It can be seen that Joseph Reed was extremely clever to go to the fashionable source- Northern Italy- and to come out of it with a distinctive style of his own, the Lombardic which equally relied upon fashionable polychromy.
Reed and Barnes’s ‘Canally’, East Melbourne of 1864 was one of the first homes in the colony to be built of red and white pressed bricks. This firm’s Independent Church was to follow in 1867, and Rippon Lea in 1868. As well a bungalow in Acland Street, St.Kilda, ‘Rajpootana’, built in 1867 in the same contrasting bricks as the Independent Church which seems likely to be another work of Reed & Barnes.
Examples of such work later gave rise to various picturesque styles characterised by the use of red brick, culminating in the Edwardian so-called ‘Queen-Anne’ and a warehouse version of the Romanesque. What is apparent is that Reedian polychrome was the cradle for a whole family of innovative styles in red
History of Place:
St Jude’s Church
In 1866 St Jude’s Church was a temporary wooden structure erected for worship. From 1866-67 the chancel, first four bays of the nave, and vestry were erected to designs by Reed and Barnes. The contractor was John Pigdon. A temporary wooden east wall was also erected while the wooden building became the Sunday School.
From 1869-70 the last four bays of the nave, balcony, narthex and crypt were erected. Temporary entrances were placed on the north and south. In 1874 the south porch and steps, area wall and iron railings and Lygon Street gates were erected. The contractor was J.Thomas.
By 1885 a portion of the Lower Hall was constructed yet never completed to the design of Mr James and the contractors Hiam & Sons. The hall was used by the Melbourne Savings Bank while their building opposite was demolished and rebuilt.
In 1886 the temporary wooden building was removed and by 1891 the Upper Hall erected abutting the Lower Hall with the Architects of Reed Smart and Tappin. The contractor was T. Sanders.
In 1935 the North porch and steps were erected to the designs of Riggall Prentice. The Tower plans were abandoned and the stone finials were removed due to becoming unstable. Then in 1963 the old vestry demolished to make way for new vicarage.(Pearson Essay).
In 1991 the church internally was repainted, and the stairs leading to the choir were rebuilt. The kitchenette and crying rooms in the church were also constructed . A new glazed link was added between the church, Upper Hall and Kindergarten crypt. Landscaping improvements were carried out and disabled access added all to the designs of Meredith Gould.
Today services still continue in the church proper whilst the Crypt beneath the chapel is used to hold the Kindergarten.
The St Jude’s Church organ was built by George Fincham in 1868, and then hired for some time to St John’s Anglican Church, Toorak. The organ was installed in the west-end gallery of St Jude’s Anglican Church when it opened on September 17th 1872. In 1896 the organ was moved from the west-end gallery to the front of the church. Recent alterations to the organ include the addition of tuning slides, and replacing the original conducts to the display pipes with modern material.
The present layer of paint is not original, it previously had gold bordering. The spotted metal pipes were also originally not painted.
The organ is currently positioned in the centre of the choir yet it was previously located in the corner just to the left of the chancel upon approach (file 600075 Heritage Victoria).
ST JUDES ANGLICAN CHURCH - Assessment Against Criteria
The historical importance, association with or relationship to Victoria's history of the place or object.
The Organ in St Judes Church is of historical importance to the State of Victoria as an early and substantially intact organ designed by the leading nineteenth century Victorian organ builder George Fincham. Fincham arrived in Australia in 1852 and began his organ building business in 1862 in which he achieved a level of perfection in organ building such that his best organs were able to compare favourably with imported English organs.
The importance of a place or object in demonstrating rarity or uniqueness.
The place or object's potential to educate, illustrate or provide further scientific investigation in relation to Victoria's cultural heritage.
The importance of a place or object in exhibiting the principal characteristics or the representative nature of a place or object as part of a class or type of places or objects.
The importance of the place or object in exhibiting good design or aesthetic characteristics and/or in exhibiting a richness, diversity or unusual integration of features.
St Jude's Church of England exhibits particular aesthetic characteristics as an early example of Gothic-polychrome and the fact that it is one of the first fully polychromatic brick churches in Australia. The 1866-67 building externally is of fully developed polychromy, with red and cream bricks against a brown background in quoining, diaperwork and window surround; the last deriving explicitly from Italian examples published by Street and Ruskin. The Reedian polychrome became the cradle for a whole family of innovative styles in red brick.
The importance of the place or object in demonstrating or being associated with scientific or technical innovations or achievements.
The Organ is associated with scientific importance to the State of Victoria as an early and substantially intact organ designed by leading nineteenth century Victorian organ builder George Fincham. The organs hand-blowing apparatus still functions and the original key, stop, and combination actions are still present. Positions of four former fittings on the vertical pillars of the casework are visible.
The importance of the place or object in demonstrating social or cultural associations.
St Jude's is of significance for the architects of the building being the well-known firm within Victoria of Reed & Barnes. The firm later became that of Reed Smart & Tappin who worked on the Lower Hall o the St Jude's Church of England complex.
Any other matter which the Council considers relevant to the determination of cultural heritage significance
ST JUDES ANGLICAN CHURCH - Permit ExemptionsGeneral Conditions:
1. All exempted alterations are to be planned and carried out in a manner which prevents damage to the fabric of the registered place or object.
2. Should it become apparent during further inspection or the carrying out of alterations that original or previously hidden or inaccessible details of the place or object are revealed which relate to the significance of the place or object, then the exemption covering such alteration shall cease and the Executive Director shall be notified as soon as possible.
3. If there is a conservation policy and plan approved by the Executive Director, all works shall be in accordance with it.
4. Nothing in this declaration prevents the Executive Director from amending or rescinding all or any of the permit exemptions.
5. Nothing in this declaration exempts owners or their agents from the responsibility to seek relevant planning or building permits from the responsible authority where applicable.
Exterior of St Jude's Anglican Church Proper
*Demolition or removal (but not replacement or additions) to 1980s buildings.
*Minor repairs and maintenance which replace like with like.
*Removal of extraneous items such as pipe work, ducting, wiring, antennae, aerials etc, and making good.
*Installation or repair of damp-proofing by either injection method or grouted pocket method.
*Repair of boundary fences
*Regular garden maintenance.
*Installation, removal or replacement of garden watering systems, provided the installation or replacement of the watering system/s do/does not cause short or long term moisture problems to the building .
Interior of St Jude's Anglican Church Proper
*Repair of plasterwork provided that all new work matches good adjacent work in style, detail and finish.
*Installation, removal or replacement of carpets and/or flexible floor coverings, eg vinyl.
*Installation, removal or replacement of hooks, nails and other devices for the hanging of mirrors, paintings and other wall mounted artworks.
*Installation, removal or replacement of electrical wiring provided that all new wiring is fully concealed and any original light switches, pull cords, push buttons or power outlets are retained in-situ. Note: if wiring original to the place was carried in timber conduits then the conduits should remain in-situ.
*Installation, removal or replacement of smoke detectors.
Interior of St Jude's Anglican Church Crypt
* No permit required for interior works which do not adversely effect the structure or exterior fabric of the building.
The following permit exemptions apply to the Upper & Lower Halls with respect to the general conditions (including the 1990?s link-way to the church building proper from the Upper Hall ) only:
All interior works providing that the structural integrity of the exteriors and their contribution to the precinct is maintained.
ST JUDES ANGLICAN CHURCH - Permit Exemption PolicyPermit Exemptions are given below which do not affect the overall significance of the structure or historic place. The exemptions generally are for maintenance and minor works to the buildings. The vicarage and link-way from the church proper to the upper hall are not included in the extent of significance and may be removed without having to apply for a permit, however all works in relation to the church and grounds must be made good on completion of such works.