Cow Plains Homestead Complex is unique for its associations with the earliest preagricultural history of the Mallee when large pastoral runs were the most characteristic form of settlement in this harsh region.
Cow Plains has historical significance as a rare surviving examplefrom this era and that remained as a pastoral run over an unusually long period. Although many properties were subdivided for agricultural purposes following the passage of the Mallee Pastoral Leases Act of 1883, Cow Plains was not subdivided until 1909.
The complex is architecturally significant to the state as an example of the use of local materials and of drop log construction. The homestead, the out-house and the ruins of the kitchen are of drop-log construction comprising a number of upright poles placed approximately 1.2 metres apart to which saplings were attached to form slots on opposite sides of the pole. Unsawn pine logs were then fitted into the slots.