Statement of Significance
Queen Victoria Market including the land, buildings and structures (including the exteriors and interiors), roads, trees and historical archaeology.HOW IS IT SIGNIFICANT?
The Queen Victoria Market is of historical, archaeological, social, architectural and aesthetic significance to the State of Victoria.
Importance to the course, or pattern, of Victoria's cultural history.
Potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Victoria's cultural history.
Importance in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a class of cultural places and objects.
Strong or special association with a particular present-day community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons.WHY IS IT SIGNIFICANT?
The Queen Victoria Market is of historical significance as one of the great nineteenth century markets of Victoria and the only one surviving from a group of important central markets built by the corporation of the City of Melbourne. It has been in continual operation as a retail market since the 1870s. The Queen Victoria Market is of historical significance as the site of Melbourne's first official cemetery, which was in use between 1837 and 1854, and intermittently from 1854 until its final closure in 1917. [Criterion A]
The former cemetery site is of archaeological significance because it contains an estimated 6,500 to 9,000 burials. The site has the potential to yield information about the early population of Melbourne, including Aboriginal and European communities, and their burial practices and customs. [Criterion C]
The Queen Victoria Market is of architectural significance as a notable example of the class of produce market. It is a remarkably intact collection of purpose built nineteenth and early twentieth century market buildings, which demonstrate the largely utilitarian style adopted for historic market places combined with the later attempt to create a more appealing 'public' street frontage through the construction of rows of nineteenth century terrace shops along Elizabeth Street and Victoria Street. [Criterion D]
The Queen Victoria Market is of social significance for its ongoing role and continued popularity as a fresh meat and vegetable market, shopping and meeting place for Victorians and visitors alike. [Criterion G]
QUEEN VICTORIA MARKET - History
In 1837, ten acres of land bound by Peel, Fulton, Queen and Franklin Streets were set aside for the purposes of establishing a cemetery for the growing township of Melbourne. The Melbourne Cemetery was surveyed by Robert Hoddle and was officially gazetted in 1839. It eventually comprised eight sections for Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Roman Catholic, Wesleyan, Jewish, Independent, Society of Friends (Quaker) and Aboriginal burials. The Aboriginal section was sanctioned prior to the execution of Aboriginal men, Tunnerminnerwait (Jack) and Maulboyheenner (Bobby) in 1842.
Concerns about the cemetery's proximity to the increasingly populated areas of the city, led to its closure in 1854, following the opening in the previous year of the Melbourne General Cemetery in Carlton. Despite the closure those who had claims on family plots continued to be interred in the Cemetery until 1917. Between 1837 and 1917, an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 people were buried at the site.
In March 1859, the Melbourne Town Council was granted the eastern triangular block for use as a market. The earliest surviving building is the wholesale Meat Market building, constructed in 1869. In 1874 the site began operating as a meat and produce retail market, and Sheds H and I were built for use by fruit and vegetable growers. The market was granted permission to take over some of the cemetery land under legislation in 1877, and following the exhumation of 45 burials, Sheds A-F were constructed in 1878. The market was officially opened as the 'Queen Victoria Market' in March of that same year. Sheds A-E were open on all sides with each divided by a service roadway, and Shed F was constructed with a brick wall on its southern side which divided the market from the remainder of the cemetery. Two-storey terrace shop buildings were constructed along Elizabeth and Victoria Streets in 1884 and 1887 respectively and provided a 'public' face to the market. Additional shops were also constructed on Victoria Street between 1890 and 1905. In 1917 legislation allowed for the remainder of the cemetery land to be acquired for market purposes. The final burial took place in 1917, and as part of the transition from cemetery to market, 914 bodies are known to have been exhumed and relocated from 1920 to 1922 including the remains of John Batman who was buried in the cemetery in 1839 and relocated to Fawkner Cemetery. A memorial to John Batman was erected by public subscription in 1881 and survives in the north-east of the carpark (not its original location). Developments during the 1920s included the construction of Sheds K and L in the Upper Market in 1923 and construction of the Dairy Produce Hall in the Lower Market in 1928 which provided dairy producers with dedicated accommodation. The Market Square development of 1929-1930 on the Upper Market site provided storage for market traders and merchants in two rows of sixty brick stores. This development, of which only the Franklin Street Stores survive, enclosed the market site along Franklin Street, and resulted in the market taking over the last of the former cemetery land. Shed M was constructed in 1936 on the Upper Market site. In recent years some of the buildings have been renovated to accommodate the changing needs of market stall holders and shoppers.
QUEEN VICTORIA MARKET - Permit ExemptionsThe following works do not require a permit provided they do not harm the cultural heritage significance of the place.Old Melbourne Cemetery SiteThe land associated with the Old Melbourne Cemetery is situated between D Shed to the north, Franklin Street to the south, Peel Street to the west and Queen Street to the east. Between 6,500 and 9,000 bodies remain interred in the former cemetery, under the Sheds A-F, Sheds K, L and M, the market carpark and Franklin Street Stores.The guiding principle for development should be avoiding disturbance to burials. Increased interpretation of the site is encouraged. The Conservation Management Plan, with particular reference to Appendix D, and the report Conservation Policy for the Former Old Melbourne Cemetery at the Queen Victoria Market (Austral Archaeology, 2000) can guide any development proposals for the Old Melbourne Cemetery site.All sub-surface works (being works which are greater than 20cm below ground level) will require approval from the Executive Director, Heritage Victoria. This is due to the high potential for human remains, and associated artefacts, to be located at shallow depths across the site of the Upper Market.All worksSurface and above-surface works to the former cemetery site which do not include sub-surface disturbance greater than 20cm depth from current surface, or the installation of new ground based structures.All areas outside the Old Melbourne Cemetery siteThe ongoing operation of the Queen Victoria Market within its purpose-built buildings and structures is strongly encouraged.The report Queen Victoria Market - Guidelines for refrigerated storage within the Open Sheds, (Allom Lovell & Associates, 2002) can assist in proposed alterations to refrigeration in the open sheds. The Queen Victoria Market Guidelines for Food stalls in Sheds A, B, H and I (October 2011) may also be consulted.The report Dairy Produce Hall, Queen Victoria Market, Melbourne, Guidelines for Tenancy Works (Allom Lovell & Associates, 2000) can assist in proposed alterations to the Dairy Hall.Generally
- Subsurface works involving the installation, removal or replacement of existing services such as water, drainage, electrical and communications services.
- Repair and maintenance of hard surfaces including paving, paths, steps, gutters and road surfaces where fabric, design, size, form and method of fixing is repaired or replaced like for like.
- Maintenance and repairs buildings or structures not of primary cultural heritage significance within their existing envelope.
- The process of gardening including pruning, disease and weed control and the removal and replacement of dead plants.
- The pruning of trees to manage their growth and health.
- The removal or pruning of dead or dangerous trees to maintain safety and to protect buildings and structures and for the management of the trees. The Executive Director must be notified within seven days of commencement works.
- Management of possums and vermin.
Maintenance and works
- The erection of temporary non-illuminated signage for the purpose of ensuring public safety and wayfinding.
- Removal or replacement of external directional signage provided the size, location and material remains the same.
- Buildings and structures (interiors and exteriors) of Primary cultural heritage significance
- Minor patching, repair and maintenance which replaces like with like without large-scale removal of or damage to the existing fabric or the large-scale introduction of new materials. Repairs must maximise protection and retention of fabric and include the conservation of existing details or elements. Any new materials used for repair must not exacerbate the decay of existing fabric due to chemical incompatibility, obscure existing fabric or limit access to existing fabric for future maintenance.
- Removal of extraneous items such as external lighting, air conditioning units, pipework, ducting, flues, wiring, antennae, aerials, fly screens etc. and making good.
- Repainting of painted surfaces in the same colour, type and quality of finish provided the works don't remove all existing paint finishes.
- Works to the internal tenancy retail areas (which do not involve a subsurface component) of both the Meat Market building and Franklin Street Stores at 154-190 Franklin Street.
- Maintenance and repair of light fittings.
Trading and Market Operations
- Any works associated with short term events including:
- The introduction of temporary structures provided that structures will be erected and used for a maximum period of three months after which they are removed.
- The introduction of temporary security fencing, scaffolding, hoardings or surveillance systems to prevent unauthorised access or secure public safety for a maximum period of three months after which they will be removed.
Safety and security
- The use of temporary micro tenancies such as food trucks, market stalls, mobile storage units and the like.
- Temporary works, line marking and the like for operational purposes.
- The display, installation and removal of temporary promotional elements such as banners, billboards, flagpoles in existing locations.
- Permit exempt works as defined in the Guidelines for Food Stalls in Sheds A, B, H and I (QVM October 2011).
Queen Street and Deli Lane roadways
- Works or activities, including emergency stabilisation, necessary to secure safety where a structure or part of a structure has been irreparably damaged or destabilised and poses a safety risk to its users or the public. It is acknowledged that in some instances additional damage to significant fabric may be required to stabilise and make safe. In these instances every attempt must be made to conserve and retain as much significant fabric as possible. The Executive Director, Heritage Victoria, must be notified within seven days of the commencement of these works or activities.
- Installation of bollards and other hostile vehicle mitigation devices to the extremities of the site.
- All works to maintain the existing roadway and road safety including road, pavement and footpath maintenance, kerb and channel repairs, road marking, the installation of pedestrian crossings, non-illuminated traffic signs and fire hydrants.
- Installation of City of Melbourne/Queen Victoria Market specific public furniture, including seats, bins, signage, bollards, lights, planter boxes, temporary free-standing street trading cafe screens and drinking fountains.
QUEEN VICTORIA MARKET - Permit Exemption PolicyIt should be noted that Permit Exemptions can be granted at the time of registration (under s.38 of the Heritage Act). Permit Exemptions can also be applied for and granted after registration (under s.92 of the Heritage Act).
Under s.38 of the Heritage Act 2017 the Executive Director may include in his recommendation categories of works or activities which may be carried out in relation to the place or object without the need for a permit under Part 5 of the Act. The Executive Director must not make a recommendation for any categories of works or activities if he considers that the works or activities may harm the cultural heritage significance of the place or object. The following permit exemptions are not considered to cause harm to the cultural heritage significance of the place.
General Condition 1All exempted alterations are to be planned and carried out in a manner which prevents damage to the fabric of the registered place or object.
General Condition 2Should it become apparent during further inspection or the carrying out of works that original or previously hidden or inaccessible details of the place or object are revealed which relate to the significance of the place or object, then the exemption covering such works shall cease and Heritage Victoria shall be notified as soon as possible.
General Condition 3All works should ideally be informed by the Queen Victoria Market Conservation Management Plan (Allom Lovell & Associates, 2003, updated by Lovell Chen in 2011 and 2017) prepared for the place. The Executive Director is not bound by any Conservation Management Plan, and permits still must be obtained for works suggested in any Conservation Management Plan.
General Condition 4Nothing in this determination prevents the Heritage Council from amending or rescinding all or any of the permit exemptions.
General Condition 5Nothing in this determination exempts owners or their agents from the responsibility to seek relevant planning or building permits from the relevant responsible authority, where applicable.
FORMER CARLTON AND UNITED BREWERYVictorian Heritage Register H0024
ROSAVILLEVictorian Heritage Register H0408
MEDLEY HALLVictorian Heritage Register H0409
"AMF Officers" ShedMoorabool Shire
"AQUA PROFONDA" SIGN, FITZROY POOLVictorian Heritage Register H1687