FORMER LONDON CHARTERED BANK
88-90 BOURKE STREET and 162 EXHIBITION STREET MELBOURNE, MELBOURNE CITY
Statement of Significance
The London Chartered Bank of Australia was founded in 1852 by Duncan Dunbar and other leading English merchants and financiers. Its head office was in Cannon Street, London. In 1859 the London Chartered Bank’s main Australia branch was constructed in Collins Street, Melbourne. It had a branch in Sydney, another in Geelong and nine branches on the Victorian goldfields. The bank at 90 Bourke Street was erected for the London Chartered Bank of Australia in 1870-71. It was the second branch of the bank to be constructed in Melbourne. The architect was Leonard Terry. In 1893 the London Chartered Bank ran into difficulties and underwent financial reconstruction, becoming the London Bank of Australia Ltd, and in 1921 it was taken over by the English, Scottish and Australasian Bank Ltd. The ES&A Bank Ltd merged with ANZ Bank Ltd in 1970, forming Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Ltd. On 16 March 1990, ANZ Bank closed the 90 Bourke Street branch and a nearby branch at 239 Exhibition Street, merging both businesses into a new branch at 222 Exhibition Street. Drawings circa 1950 suggest that the upper floors of the 90 Bourke Street bank were residential, while the banking chamber and offices occupied the ground floor only. The former bank is a three storey stone-faced building occupying a corner site. The ground floor has rusticated stonework with semi circle arch openings, the first floor has rectangular windows and balconettes and the second floor has segmental arch windows. A parapet and cornice finish off the building. The ground floor originally had a splayed corner. This has remained on the first and second floors. In 1998 the building was converted into 11 apartments with a gallery on the ground floor.
How is it significant?
The Former London Chartered Bank is of historical and architectural significance to the State of Victoria.
Why is it significant?
The Former London Chartered Bank is of architectural importance as an unusual bank by architect Leonard Terry in that it is three storeys high. With its stone facade, it is a fine example of Terry’s delicate style and is indicative of the rigid dictums of conservative classicism in which he designed. It occupies a prominent corner position and terminates the long row of buildings leading to Parliament House.
The Former London Chartered Bank is of historical importance as the earliest intact example of a London Chartered Bank in Melbourne. It is important for its demonstration of the boom period in Melbourne, when there was a great deal of private investment and flow of capital due to the gold rush.
FORMER LONDON CHARTERED BANK - HistoryContextual History:
Duncan Dunbar and other leading English merchants and financiers founded the London Chartered Bank of Australia in 1852. Its head office was in Cannon Street, London. In 1865 the London Chartered Bank’s main Australia branch was at 68 Collins Street West, Melbourne. It had a branch in Sydney, another in Geelong, and nine branches on the Victorian goldfields (Cash 1990, p1.).
In 1893 the bank ran into difficulties and underwent financial reconstruction, becoming the London Bank of Australia Ltd, and in 1921 it was taken over by the English, Scottish and Australasian Bank Ltd. The ES&A Bank Ltd merged with ANZ Bank Ltd in 1970, forming Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Ltd (Cash 1990, p.1).
History of Place:
The Former London Chartered Bank was erected in 1870-71. The architect was Leonard Terry (National Trust). Terry was the architect of the London Chartered Bank’s main Melbourne Branch at 68 Collins Street west (Cash 1990, p. 4). The E S& A Bank commissioned Leonard Terry to design their branches until Terry’s death in 1884 (Trethowan 1976, p.8).
On 16 December 1870 the London Chartered Bank of Australia paid 6 500 for a block of land on the north east corner of Bourke and Stephen Streets. This block was allotment 1 in section 24 of the Melbourne town lots. Its postal address was 185 Bourke Street East in 1870. About 1888, Bourke Street was renumbered and the address became 90 Bourke Street. The land was originally purchased at the Melbourne land sales on 11 April 1839. George Porter, the buyer paid 75 for this block, which was one of many that he acquired at the early sales. Porter was a prominent local citizen. In 1841 he was elected a member of the Market Commission. Demolition of the Newmarket Hotel presumably occurred early in 1871. On 22 May 1871 builder James Lawrence lodged with the Melbourne City Council a notice of intention to build bank premises on the site. The notice specified the commencement of construction on 25 May 1871 (Cash 1990, p.4).
Construction of the 185 Bourke Street East premises was completed by the end of 1871. Notices placed in the newspapers suggest that the bank occupied the new building on 15 January 1872. An undated blue print (probably c. 1950) suggests that the upper floors were residential, while the banking chamber and offices occupied the ground floor only (cash 1990, p.4).
Significant alterations had occurred by the 1950s. Photographs show that the ground floor entrance had been changed from the centre of the Bourke and Exhibition Streets’ corner to Bourke Street. The original splayed corner was retained on the upper floors (Cash 1990).
Major internal renovations and alterations occurred in the mid-1970s. The architects, John Pollock and Christopher Hanley, summarised the works in a proposal dated 3 January 1975. According to this proposal, the project involved removal of ‘the existing timber floors, brick and stud partitions and a large part of the rear brick structure, while retaining and restoring the existing facade. Three concrete floors and a mezzanine between the new ground and first floors would replace the existing three timber floors. A new fire stair and toilet areas were proposed to the rear. It was also intended to repair and restore the existing sandstone facade and the rendered part of the Western facade would receive an applied finish to match the Sydney sandstone of the main facades. It seems that the major features of this proposal were implemented in the mid 1970s, but precise dates and details are not known (Cash 1990). The building has also been extended at ground floor level along Exhibition Street to the north. The bank was converted into 11 apartments in 1998.
On 29 August 1974 the 90 Bourke Street branch absorbed the business of ANZ Bank’s Southern Cross branch. Then on 16 March 1990, ANZ Bank closed the 90 Bourke Street branch and a nearby branch at 239 Exhibition Street, merging both businesses into a new branch at 222 Exhibition Street. This new branch opened on 19 March 1990.
The architect-Leonard Terry
By far the most prolific architect of the period was Leonard Terry. His works epitomise the conservative classical style. Terry’s most important individual building in this style is the Melbourne Club in Collins Street. His banks have a marked unity and together form an important group (Trethowan 1976).
Leonard Terry (1825-1884) was born at Scarborough, Yorkshire, the son of a timber merchant and came to Melbourne in 1853. He had his own practice as an architect by 1856 and became the principal designer of banks and buildings for the Anglican Church within Victoria, being appointed diocesan architect in 1860. His best known works include the Melbourne Club (1858) and a number of churches of which the most intact is Holy Trinity Williamstown (1870-74). In 1874 Percy Oakden became his junior partner in the architectural firm of Terry and Oakden. Leonard Terry’s works outside Victoria include the former Union Bank Building, Launceston and the Bank of New Zealand in Auckland.
FORMER LONDON CHARTERED BANK - Assessment Against Criteria
The historical importance, association with or relationship to Victoria's history of the place or object.
The Former London Chartered Bank is of historical importance as an early example of a London Chartered Bank. It was the second to be built in Melbourne.
The importance of a place or object in demonstrating rarity or uniqueness.
The place or object's potential to educate, illustrate or provide further scientific investigation in relation to Victoria's cultural heritage.
The importance of a place or object in exhibiting the principal characteristics or the representative nature of a place or object as part of a class or type of places or objects.
It is a fine example of a simple and elegant stone-faced bank building of the 1870s. It is a fine example of a Victorian Academic Classical style building.
The importance of the place or object in exhibiting good design or aesthetic characteristics and/or in exhibiting a richness, diversity or unusual integration of features.
The Former London Chartered Bank is of architectural importance as an unusual bank by Leonard Terry in that it is three storeys high. With its stone facade, it is a fine example of Terry's delicate style and is indicative of the rigid dictums of conservative classicism in which he designed. It occupies a prominent corner position and terminates the long row of buildings leading to Parliament House.
The importance of the place or object in demonstrating or being associated with scientific or technical innovations or achievements.
The importance of the place or object in demonstrating social or cultural associations.
Any other matter which the Council considers relevant to the determination of cultural heritage significance
FORMER LONDON CHARTERED BANK - Permit ExemptionsGeneral Conditions:
1. All exempted alterations are to be planned and carried out in a manner which prevents damage to the fabric of the registered place or object.
2. Should it become apparent during further inspection or the carrying out of alterations that original or previously hidden or inaccessible details of the place or object are revealed which relate to the significance of the place or object, then the exemption covering such alteration shall cease and the Executive Director shall be notified as soon as possible.
3. If there is a conservation policy and plan approved by the Executive Director, all works shall be in accordance with it.
4. Nothing in this declaration prevents the Executive Director from amending or rescinding all or any of the permit exemptions.
5. Nothing in this declaration exempts owners or their agents from the responsibility to seek relevant planning or building permits from the responsible authority where applicable.
* Minor repairs and maintenance which replace like with like.
* Removal of any extraneous items such as air conditioners, pipe work, ducting, wiring, antennae, aerials etc, and making good.
* Installation or repair of damp-proofing by either injection method or grouted pocket method.
* All interior alterations that do not adversely affect the structure of the building.
FORMER LONDON CHARTERED BANK - Permit Exemption PolicyThe main importance of this former bank lies in its facade. The interior of the building has been completely altered and does not retain any of its original features. Alterations should not adversely affect the structure or the facade.
ROSAVILLEVictorian Heritage Register H0408
MEDLEY HALLVictorian Heritage Register H0409
DRUMMOND TERRACEVictorian Heritage Register H0872
"AMF Officers" ShedMoorabool Shire
"AQUA PROFONDA" SIGN, FITZROY POOLVictorian Heritage Register H1687