Statement of Significance
What is significant?
The Flinders Street Railway Station Complex occupies a site that has been one of the central points of Melbourne's rail system since the 1850s. The first train line at Flinders Street was constructed in 1854 and further lines and platforms were installed and rearranged both before and after construction of the main station building. It was the town terminus for the Melbourne & Hobson's Bay Railway Co, which in 1854 was the first steam locomotive hauled passenger railway operation in Australia. Later, private company operations from adjacent Princes Bridge Station were linked up under Swanston Street to Flinders Street Station by the expanded Melbourne & Hobson's Bay United Railway Co. in 1865. This company and its assets were taken over by the Victorian Railways in 1878 In 1891 the Victorian Railways connected Flinders Street to its existing major station at Spencer Street with a viaduct .
By the 1880s the original buildings at Flinders Street were considered inadequate and a competition was held for redesign of the station. The competition was won by James Fawcett and HPC Ashworth of the Railways Department. Demolition of the original station and other buildings on the site commenced in 1900. The foundations were begun in 1902 and Peter Rodger commenced construction in 1905. He was dismissed in 1908 and the work was taken over by the Railways Department using day labour. The station was completed in 1910.
The imposing design of the Edwardian baroque style station building reflects the importance of the new Station to the city. The three-storey station building designed originally was intended to accommodate passenger, administration and staff facilities. Changes made during construction added a basement and a third floor containing facilities for the Victorian Railway Institute.
The Elizabeth Street and the Central/Degraves Street subways ran under the Station with stairs from the platforms to the Central/Degraves Subway and ramps from the platforms to the Elizabeth St Subway. The subways were constructed at the same time as the Station to protect passengers changing platforms from the smoke and steam of steam trains, while Campbell Arcade (between the Central / Degraves Street subway and Degraves Street) opened in 1955.
The Parcels Yard and Dock (formerly known as the Milk Dock), was established as the Station's main loading point and road connection. At the eastern end there is an entrance ramp from Flinders Street, and loading bay adjacent to the west facade of the main Station building (the original parcels yard) and, further west, a siding (dock platform), located to the rear (north) of platform 1 and adjacent to the vaults.
The Banana Alley Vaults are located underneath the railway viaduct linking Flinders Street Railway Station to Spencer Street Railway Station. The viaduct between Flinders Street Railway Station and Spencer Street Railway Station was constructed in two stages between 1888 and 1915. The Banana Alley Vaults underneath the viaduct were constructed by the Railways Department in 1892 as commercial properties benefiting from their close proximity to the two railway stations and Queens Wharf, which remained in operation until 1927. The vaults also provided the Department with potential rental income from an otherwise unusable space beneath the viaduct.
Despite community opposition, extensive changes were made to the Booking Hall and Swanston Street concourse area from 1983 to 1999. The major change was the staged removal of all the ramps to the platforms from the Swanston Street concourse, including the stone entrances to these ramps as well as the installation of escalators and lifts to the platforms and the creation of Clocks Bistro. A major refurbishment of the centre of the concourse included demolition of original toilets and newspaper stalls to create a large open space and new toilets and shops. All the pale blue and green ceramic tiles lining the main booking hall were replaced with pink granite tiles and the bluestone and asphalt platforms and surviving Elizabeth St ramps were resurfaced with cement and white tiles. The Flinders Street Station Mural mosaic mural by Mirka Mora was commissioned by the Department of Transport and created in 1986, replacing the Riverside booking office.
This site is part of the traditional land of the Kulin Nation.
How is it significant?
The Flinders Street Railway Station Complex is of historical, aesthetic, architectural, technical and social significance to the State of Victoria. It satisfies the following criterion for inclusion in the Victorian Heritage Register:
Criterion A Importance to the course, or pattern, of Victoria's cultural history
Criterion E Importance in exhibiting particular aesthetic characteristics
Criterion F Importance in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period.
Criterion G Strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons. This includes the significance of a place to Indigenous peoples as part of their continuing and developing cultural traditions
Why is it significant?
The Flinders Street Railway Station Complex is significant at the State level for the following reasons:
The Flinders Street Railway Station Complex is historically significant as the centre of the suburban railway system and is a major landmark building of the city and State. When completed, its imposing scale symbolised the importance of the railways to Melbourne and the primacy of Melbourne. Campbell Arcade was the first major public infrastructure to be built in the city following WWII, generating considerable public interest. [Criterion A]
The main station building at the Flinders Street Railway Station Complex is architecturally and aesthetically significant as one of the most important public buildings in Victoria and as an excellent example of a great railway building of the early 20th century. Described by its architects as "French Renaissance in a free manner", the design of the Station encompasses a range of stylistic sources. In combining elements of French Renaissance sources, overlaid internally with Art Nouveau, it is a building with no direct comparison. Its eclectic design is unique and it represents an extraordinary example of a building type. The main station building's architectural significance is accentuated by its strategic location on the southern boundary of the city grid, where it is a gateway building dominating both the corner of Swanston and Flinders Streets and the view of the city from Southbank. [Criteria A and E]
The layout of the platforms and subways is architecturally and historically significant because it has remained virtually intact since its construction in the first decade of the twentieth century, with the exception of the major refurbishment of the centre of the concourse and the replacement of the Swanston ramps with escalators and lifts. The open truss verandahs with circular steel brackets add a decorative element to each of the platforms and unify the design of the canopies over the external areas of the Station. The original cast and wrought iron balustrading surrounding the subway and shop entrance stairs also contributes to the overall level of ornamentation. Each of the platform entrances to the saw-tooth shelters over the Elizabeth Street Subway ramps feature decorative pressed metal sheeting to moulded entablatures. Campbell Arcade is a rare and substantial example of late Art Deco design in a distinctive 1950s colour scheme. The parcels siding and dock and associated infrastructure at the western end of platform 1 are also largely intact and demonstrate the original functions of this platform. The six early surviving signalling and electrification structures remain an integral part of the Station infrastructure. [Criteria A and E)
The main station building at the Flinders Street Railway Station Complex is of aesthetic significance for the high standard of detailing using many of the architectural decoration techniques available in the early twentieth century, including pressed metal work (ferrous and non-ferrous), cast and wrought iron, copper domes, leadlight and stained glass and glazed Majolica and 1950s wall tiles. It has the most extensive use of Edwardian and 1950s wall tiles of any Station or building in the State. Campbell Arcade, designed in 1949, is of aesthetic significance as one of the most intact early post WWII public interiors in Melbourne with its salmon pink wall tiles, pink and black terrazzo floor, polished black granite columns and chromed steel shopfronts. The Flinders Street Station Mural, a mosaic mural by renowned Melbourne artist Mirka Mora is of aesthetic significance as an outstanding example of Mora's playful and sensuous iconography that is beloved by many Melbournians. The brick facade of the Banana Alley vaults dating to the construction of the railway viaduct in the early 1890s is of aesthetic significance for its balanced composition of exposed bluestone foundations, brick walls and rendered dressings. [Criterion E]
The Flinders Street Railway Station Complex is of technical significance for its extensive use of four types of decorative and functional pressed metal work. It represents one of the largest and most extensive uses of pressed metal work in a public building in Victoria. This building offers a rare example of the use of this technique in large scale external wall cladding; structurally in the Träegerwellblech system of floor and ceiling construction; and in the copper for the roof domes, as well as extensive interior decorative use. The significance of this metalwork is enhanced by its high level of intactness. The early surviving signal bridges and the overhead tensioning and switching structures are also of technical significance. [Criterion F]
The Flinders Street Railway Station Complex is socially significant as one of the best known and most heavily used public spaces in Melbourne. The station has a treasured place in the consciousness of many of the city's inhabitants, and the steps under the clocks at the entrance of the main station building have been a popular meeting place for generations of Melburnians. As Melbourne's central station, particularly before the City Loop was constructed, it was the primary entrance point to the CBD for city workers and shoppers alike for many decades. In addition, the main station building represents an extraordinary example of a public building offering a range of activities and functions to the general public and railway employees, aside from its primary function as a railway station. The facilities are unique for a public building of this period. The dining and refreshment room interiors on the first floor and the former Victorian Railways Institute rooms on the third floor are more akin to the gentlemen's club than to a railway station. Beyond a consideration of their relatively lavish interiors, these spaces have been extremely important in the twentieth century in providing large numbers of metropolitan railway employees with a social, sporting and organisational base. The cheap and easy availability of Victorian Railway Institute clubrooms for meetings and functions of a large and eclectic number of Melbourne clubs and societies broadens and emphasises the place's social significance. [Criterion G]
The Flinders Street Railway Station Complex is also significant for the following reasons, but not at the State level:
For its historical and ongoing role as the heart of the suburban railway system.
For its association with Mirka Mora, the creator of The Flinders Street Station Mural. Mora has contributed artistically to the enlivening of the city of Melbourne. She is one of the artists who from the 1950s contributed to the transformation of Melbourne from quiet provincial town to a sophisticated multicultural city.
FLINDERS STREET RAILWAY STATION COMPLEX - HistoryContextual History:History of Place:
The site upon which Flinders Street Station now stands was occupied by an open-air fish market in the 1840s. In 1865 the Melbourne City Council constructed an enclosed fish market on the site. This building was demolished in 1900 to make way for the new station building.
The first railway line in Australia was opened in 1854. Its two storey station building was located opposite the end of Elizabeth Street, and the company terminus fronted Flinders Street just to the east. Both of these buildings were demolished to make way for the new station in 1900. Two long goods sheds were positioned back from Flinders Street, one to the west and the other to the east of Elizabeth Street. These were demolished in the 1870s and 1880s. Along the Swanston Street frontage, adjacent to the fish market, was the station booking office, erected in the 1880s. From 1859, the Princes Bridge Station, to the east of Swanston Street, was the terminus of the Windsor and Brighton lines. This station was closed in 1866 when the lines were connected with Flinders Street Station and did not re-open until 1879 when it was known as the Victorian Gippsland Railway Station.
A competition for new station buildings at both Flinders and Spencer Streets was held in 1883 and won by William Salway. However, nothing was to come of this effort, and it wasn't until 1890 that another planning attempt was made. After the construction of some platforms, work on the 1890 plan was stopped, probably for financial reasons. This was a time of massive and often corrupt and wasteful expenditure on Melbourne's railways, and by the early 1890s there was considerable criticism and political controversy over railway spending. By 1896 the Railways Department had come up with a new plan but this was rejected. Another plan was submitted in 1899 but the Parliamentary Standing Committee was again dissatisfied and suggested a competition to find a design. Accordingly, a competition was held in late 1899 and adjudicated in early 1900. Despite some controversy over the conduct of the competition, a winning design, by James Fawcett, an architect on the staff of the Railways Department, and H.P.C. Ashworth, a departmental engineer, was selected.
Associated People: H P C Ashworth;
FLINDERS STREET RAILWAY STATION COMPLEX - Permit Exemptions
PERMIT EXEMPTIONS (under section 42(4) of the Heritage Act)
It should be noted that Permit Exemptions can be granted at the time of registration (under s.42(4) of the Heritage Act). Permit Exemptions can also be applied for and granted after registration (under s.66 of the Heritage Act)
General Condition: 1.
All exempted alterations are to be planned and carried out in a manner which prevents damage to the fabric of the registered place or object.
General Condition: 2.
Should it become apparent during further inspection or the carrying out of works that original or previously hidden or inaccessible details of the place or object are revealed which relate to the significance of the place or object, then the exemption covering such works shall cease and Heritage Victoria shall be notified as soon as possible.
General Condition: 3.
All works should be informed by a Conservation Management Plan prepared for the place. The Executive Director is not bound by any Conservation Management Plan, and permits still must be obtained for works suggested in any Conservation Management Plan, unless exempted below.
General Conditions: 4.
Nothing in this determination prevents the Heritage Council from amending or rescinding all or any of the permit exemptions.
General Condition: 5.
Nothing in this determination exempts owners or their agents from the responsibility to seek relevant planning or building permits from the relevant responsible authority, where applicable.
. Removal of non-original items such as air conditioners, pipe work, ducting, wiring, antennae, aerials etc. Works to repair fabric of no cultural heritage significance after removal of non-original items does not require a permit.
. Repairs, refitting or rewiring non-original lift cars, motors, equipment and the like.
. Painting of previously painted walls and ceilings provided that preparation or painting does not remove any original paint, varnishes, finishes or other decorative scheme.
. Removal or replacement of non-original carpets and/or flexible floor coverings.
. Removal or replacement of non-original curtain tracks, rods and blinds.
. Removal or replacement of hooks, nails and other devices for the hanging of mirrors, paintings and other wall mounted art or office items.
. Removal or replacement of non-original notice boards.
. Demolition or removal of the following non-original items: stud/partition walls, suspended ceilings or wall linings (including plasterboard, laminate and Masonite), glazed screens, flush panel or part-glazed laminated doors, aluminium-framed windows, bathroom partitions and tiling, sanitary fixtures and fittings, kitchen wall tiling and equipment, lights, built-in cupboards, cubicle partitions, computer and office fit out and the like.
. Removal or replacement of non-original door and window furniture including, hinges, locks, knobsets and sash lifts.
. Refurbishment of existing non-original bathrooms, toilets and kitchens including removal, installation or replacement of sanitary fixtures and associated piping, mirrors, wall and floor coverings.
. Installation, removal or replacement of non-original ducted, hydronic or concealed radiant type heating provided that the installation does not damage existing skirtings and architraves and that the central plant is concealed, and is done in a manner not detrimental to the cultural heritage significance of the place.
. Installation, removal or replacement of electrical wiring provided that all new wiring is enclosed in conduits and any original light switches, pull cords, push buttons or power outlets are retained in-situ. Note: if wiring original to the place was carried in timber conduits then the conduits and unused original wiring should remain in situ.
. Installation, removal or replacement of non-original electric clocks, public address systems, detectors, alarms, emergency lights, exit signs, luminaires and the like.
. Installation, removal or replacement of dry bulk or reflective insulation in the roof space.
. General maintenance of buildings and elements of primary and contributory heritage significance. Such maintenance includes the temporary removal of broken clear glass and the temporary shuttering of windows and covering of holes as long as this work is reversible and does not further damage the original fabric. The original elements should then be conserved and returned to the building under a permit.
. Emergency repair of broken lead light and stained glass by a qualified stained glass conservator.
. Painting and chemical corrosion treatment of the signal bridges 1-6 and overhead tensioning and switching structure identified as being of Contributory Cultural Heritage Significance.
. Erecting, repairing and maintaining non-original signage (directional signage, road signs, and speed signs) where such signage does not impact on elements of primary of contributory significance.
. Resurfacing of existing paths and driveways with asphalt (except for the area around the Parcels Dock and Siding), providing original bluestone platform walls and coping are retained.
. Erection of temporary soft banner style signs on the building or attaching reversible adhesive signs to tiles, providing no penetrations are made into the fabric of the building.
Specific Permit Exemptions
. The process of gardening, including mowing, hedge clipping, bedding displays, removal of dead shrubs and replanting the same species or cultivar, disease and weed control, and maintenance to care for existing plants.
. The removal or pruning of dead or dangerous trees to maintain safety. If the tree is identified as being of primary cultural heritage significance, the Executive Director must be notified of these works within 2 business days of them being undertaken.
. Replanting of removed or dead trees and vegetation with the same plant species to conserve the significant landscape character and values.
. Management of trees in accordance with Australian Standard; Pruning of Amenity Trees AS 4373-1996.
. Management of trees in accordance with Australian Standard; Protection of Trees on Development Sites AS 4970-2009.
. Installation, removal or replacement of watering and drainage systems or services outside the canopy edge of significant trees in accordance with AS 4970 and on the condition that works do not impact on archaeological features or deposits.
. Removal of plants listed as noxious weeds in the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994.
. Vegetation protection and management of possums and vermin.
Public Safety and Security
Public safety and security activities provided the works do not impact on any building or element identified as being of primary or contributory significance, or sub-surface archaeological artefacts or deposits;
The erection of temporary security fencing, scaffolding, hoardings or surveillance systems to prevent unauthorised access or secure public safety which will not adversely affect any building or element identified as being of primary or contributory cultural heritage significance including archaeological features;
Emergency stabilisation necessary to secure safety where a site feature has been irreparably damaged or destabilised and represents a safety risk to its users or the public.
Note: Urgent or emergency site works are to be undertaken or supervised by an appropriately qualified heritage specialist such as a structural engineer, or other heritage professional
Rail Tracks and Overhead Wiring
. Removal, re-ballasting , re-levelling, renewal or replacement of rail tracks and replacement of railway tracks and sleepers.
. Removal, rewiring and restructuring of the overhead collection wires and other wiring including overhead power lines.
. Modifications and repairs to and replacement of any electric or electronic signalling equipment.
. Removal of, repairs to, installation or replacement of non-original ticket machines, passenger control gates, safety barriers, rubbish bins, seating, bicycle racks and other small items of non-original platform furniture.
. Removal, installation, repair or replacement of non-commercial signage, security lighting, fire safety equipment provided it does not involve the removal or erection of a building or other structure or have any impacts on original fabric or penetrations into original fabric.
Flinders Street, Swanston Street and Queensbridge Street reserves
. All works associated with operating and maintaining the existing road and public transport infrastructure including all tramways, roadways, footpaths, kerbs and channels, traffic lights, tram stops, railings, car parks, signs, fire hydrants, parking meters, street lighting, seating, shelters, speed humps, pedestrian refuges and splitter islands.
. The installation of standard City of Melbourne street furniture within the road reserves, including rubbish and recycling bins, park seats, interpretative signage, drinking fountains, pathway lights, fencing and safety barriers providing these do not significantly impact on the views of the Flinders Street Railway Station Complex.
Yarra River boundary
All works associated with operating and maintaining the existing river retaining wall, Flinders Walk infrastructure, and all wharfs and the entrance to the Yarra footbridge.
Swanston Street Bridge / substructure to viaduct
Internal alterations which do not alter the external appearance of the structure to the brick rooms below the concourse viaduct structure.
Flinders Street Shops
Internal shop fitting out works and finishes to all shops except City Hatters, provided that the shop fronts and pressed metal ceilings are not affected and no structural work is undertaken.
Railway basements not accessed by public
Installation of modern equipment providing this does not impact on any surviving original equipment.
. Replacement of non original wiring, lighting, speakers, monitor cameras, monitor screens using existing penetrations.
. Resurfacing of the platforms in asphalt providing the original timber block below the asphalt is preserved. (The platforms are currently tiled but it is likely that the original timber blocks and asphalt survive below this).
. Installation of new wiring, lighting, speakers, monitor cameras, monitor screens on buildings or elements identified as being of no cultural heritage significance
Banana Alley Vaults - Interior
All internal works other than structural works or works to facades or doorways.
Banana Alley Vaults - Exterior
Installation of illuminated signage in existing sign boxes and hand finished, painted, non-illuminated signage on render band above entry doors.
Signal Box 'A' - Interior
Internal works which do not cause a change in the external appearance of the building.
Modern retail premises within the concourse
. All internal works within the existing tenancy shell
. The removal of modern retail premises and modern additions identified as being of 'no cultural heritage significance' providing this removal does not have any impact on fabric identified as being of Primary or Contributory Cultural Heritage Significance.
. Works to 'Clocks' Bistro where it joins to the Flinders Street Station Mural by Mirka Mora; and any other areas where the modern retail premises join to fabric identified as being of Primary or Contributory Cultural Heritage Significance are not included in this exemption.
FLINDERS STREET RAILWAY STATION COMPLEX - Permit Exemption Policy
The purpose of the Permit Policy is to assist when considering or making decisions regarding works to a registered place. It is recommended that any proposed works be discussed with an officer of Heritage Victoria prior to making a permit application. Discussing proposed works will assist in answering questions the owner may have and aid any decisions regarding works to the place.
Conservation management plans
A Conservation Management Plan was prepared by Lovell Chen for VicTrack in 2012, titled 'Flinders Street Station, Flinders Street, Melbourne, Conservation Management Plan' (2012 CMP). This CMP can be used generally to guide management of Flinders Street Railway Station Complex; however the extent, permit policy and permit exemptions in the Victorian Heritage Register documentation take precedence.
The CMP should be updated periodically to take account of changing needs and functions of the Station.
The extent of registration of the Flinders Street Railway Station Complex on the Victorian Heritage Register affects the whole place shown on Diagram 1083 including the land, all buildings, roads, trees, landscape elements, railway infrastructure, subways and other features. Under the Heritage Act 1995 a person must not remove or demolish, damage or despoil, develop or alter or excavate, relocate or disturb the position of any part of a registered place or object without approval. It is acknowledged, however, that alterations and other works may be required to keep places and objects in good repair and adapt them for use into the future.
If a person wishes to undertake works or activities in relation to a registered place or registered object, they must apply to the Executive Director, Heritage Victoria for a permit. The purpose of a permit is to enable appropriate change to a place and to effectively manage adverse impacts on the cultural heritage significance of a place as a consequence of change. If an owner is uncertain whether a heritage permit is required, it is recommended that Heritage Victoria be contacted.
Permits are required for anything which alters the place or object, unless a permit exemption is granted. Permit exemptions usually cover routine maintenance and upkeep issues faced by owners as well as minor works. They may include appropriate works that are specified in a conservation management plan. Permit exemptions can be granted at the time of registration (under s.42 of the Heritage Act) or after registration (under s.66 of the Heritage Act).
It should be noted that the addition of new buildings to the registered place, as well as alterations to the interior and exterior of existing buildings requires a permit, unless a specific permit exemption is granted.
CULTURAL HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE
Following is guidance on the relative levels of significance of the different elements that make up the Flinders Street Railway Station Complex. This information will assist in the application of the permit policies and exemptions that follow.
PRIMARY CULTURAL HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE
All of the buildings and features listed here are of primary cultural heritage significance in the context of the place. A permit is required for most works or alterations. See Permit Exemptions section for specific permit exempt activities. The elements of primary significance include the following.
The area of land at platform level as bounded by the east side of Swanston Street and the eastern extent of platforms 12/13, the south side of the rail tracks to the high water mark of the river, the west wall of the entry to the Parcels Yard and Dock from Flinders Street as extended to the southern edge of the platform 11 track alignment and the south side kerb to Flinders Street.
Main Station building
. All of the original external facades (north, east, south and west) including all original detailing and fabric in walls, doors and windows;
. The indicator clocks above the main entrance in the north-east facade;
. Elizabeth Street clock tower;
. The canopy, as created and extended, to the north facade over the Flinders Street footpath;
. Original pedestrian entrances to the Station opposite Elizabeth and Degraves Streets and at the intersection of Flinders and Swanston Streets.
Roof of main station building
. All of the roof area to the building including the flat roof areas, the main dome, the arched roof above the former ballroom / lecture hall and all mansard roofs, but excluding the modified lift motor room structures.
. The largely open space beneath the original concourse roof;
. Original roof form and materials, including the supporting column and truss structure;
. The stone pavilion at the south end of the concourse;
. The Flinders Street Station Mural by Mirka Mora at the southern end of the concourse.
. Original booking hall and ticket checking hall in the main dome block excluding the 1980s granite wall tiles;
. Rooms in the main station building;
. Internal circulation areas in the main station building;
. All extant original pressed metal ceiling and wall linings (refer to Figure 108 in the 2012 CMP as a guide to the locations of most of the pressed metal ceilings in particular rooms, but note that there is also pressed metal to corridors and on walls throughout the building);
. All extant original joinery (doors, windows, architraves, skirtings), including door and window furniture;
. All stained glass, leadlight, original plasterwork and painted finishes
. Early shop front glazing and framing, shop fittings, pressed metal and signage to the "City Hatters" shop on the north-east corner.
. Original door and entrance to the five joined western basement shops together with shop number plates, pressed metal ceilings and some 'WC' areas.
. Elizabeth Street clock including its mechanism, third floor control cupboard and four faces;
. Clock above main entrance to station building;
. Indicator clocks at main entrance to main station building.
. Trägerwellblech system flooring;
. Train rail and terracotta incorporated into the building fabric;
. Pressed metal, rendered and terracotta mouldings;
. Original bluestone retaining walls and copings of the platforms;
. Original platform verandahs and supporting structures;
. Original cantilevered verandah to platform 1;
. Original stair to platforms 12 and 13 from the concourse area;
. Original balustrading to entrances to subways;
. Original kiosk and six timber seats on platforms 1 and 14
. Original vaults on platform 14 Original or early platform signage.
. Structure and original internal fabric of the Elizabeth Street Subway;
. Structure and original internal fabric of the Central (Degraves Street) subway;
. Structure and original internal fabric of Campbell Arcade including at its extant and closed exits
. Male and female toilets in the Elizabeth Street Subway.
. Original fabric of stairs and entry ramps to platforms;
. Saw-tooth enclosures over entry ramps to the Elizabeth Street Subway;
. Original platform direction and other signage incorporated into tiled walls and original Edwardian and 1950s coloured and white tiles.
Parcels Yard and Dock
. All of the granite paved ramp from Flinders Street;
. All of the bluestone retaining walls;
. Whole of structure over the original parcels yard including roof and columns;
. Original bluestone structure and copings, and the timber block and asphalt surface of the platform;
. All of the siding and the platform on both sides
. The 1945 timber buffers and baulks in the siding and steel floor tiles surrounding the siding;
. ASCO (Australasian Scale Company) Weighbridge
Swanston Street Bridge (the northern approach to Princes Bridge)
. All of the original 1888 and extended 1908 structure supporting the roadway of Swanston Street;
Banana Alley vaults
. All of the original external facades (north, south and west) including all original detailing and fabric in walls, doors and windows.
. The plantings on the river side of the Station at Princes Bridge from the stone pavilion and 'Clocks' bistro.
. The plantings in the area of Flinders Street from behind the Flinders Street stand-alone shop extending to the start of the Banana Alley vaults
CONTRIBUTORY CULTURAL HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE
Buildings and features that are listed here or are not listed under 'Primary Cultural Heritage Significance' or 'No Cultural Heritage Significance' are deemed to have contributory cultural heritage significance to the place. A permit is required for most works or alterations. See Permit Exemptions section for specific permit exempt activities:
The areas of contributory significance are:
. The area of land at platform/track level as bounded by the retaining wall and Banana Alley Vaults to the north, Queensbridge Street to the west, the west wall of the entry to the Parcels Yard and Dock from Flinders Street as extended to the southern edge of the platform 11 track alignment to the east and by the Yarra River to the south (refer Diagram 1083). This excludes the Banana Alley Vaults and surrounding walkways (which are of 'Primary Cultural Heritage Significance').
Parcels Yard and Dock
. The 1945 canopy/verandah structure.
Banana Alley vaults
. Interior spaces of all the vaults.
Six signal bridges and one Overhead (Electric Traction) Structure
Refer Diagram 1083 for locations of these items
. Signal bridge 1 at the beginning of the viaduct opposite Market Street;
. Signal bridge 2 spanning three tracks beside the 1945 roof on the Western Extension of platform 1;
. Signal bridge 3 spanning three tracks immediately west of Station building on platform 1;
. Signal bridge 4 spanning Tracks 9, 9A and 10;
. Signal bridge 5 spanning Tracks 3 and 4 which is next to signal bridge 6 which spans Tracks 5 to 8. These are located close to at the end of the platforms;
. Overhead tensioning and switching structure dating from the original electrification project, spanning Tracks 3 to 8 and located opposite the Elizabeth Street entrance to the Station.
NO CULTURAL HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE
Areas and elements which are of little or no cultural heritage significance are generally those which are of recent origins; those which have been considerably altered, those which individually never had a high level of historic, aesthetic, scientific or technological significance or those whose function was peripheral rather than fundamental to the principal or core operation of the place.
The following buildings and features are of no cultural heritage significance. Specific permit exemptions are provided for these items:
. The extended lift motor rooms constructed on the roof of the main station building.
. All of the structure and fabric relating to the extensions of the concourse (1983, 1999 and beyond) from the west edge of the original concourse roof (including the 'Clocks' venue, escalators and lifts down to platform level);
. Modern kiosk structures (retail tenancies, food and drink outlets, information booth, travellers' aid, and others), security fencing and barriers, automatic ticket machines, electronic information screens and other similar elements or fixtures;
. All modern paving throughout noting that significant historic timber block and asphalt paving may underlie this.
. Non original steel supports for the platform verandahs;
. All structures and fabric relating to cameras, electronic displays and the like;
. Additional overhead structures penetrating original verandahs;
. All new concrete copings and tiled surfaces to platforms;
. All non-original kiosks;
. All new platform furniture such as seating, wind-breaks, bins, vending machines, advertising billboards and the like;
. All escalators and lifts.
. The retail premises on Flinders Street to the west of the Parcels Dock entry;
. The fabric of the riverside walkway, including landscaping, extending from Princes Bridge to Queens Bridge dating from the 1983 refurbishment works;
. All sundry structures constructed in the track area west of the Parcels Dock;
. All tracks, gantries, cabling and rail system infrastructure.
Archaeological: Ground disturbance may affect the archaeological significance of the place and, subject to the exemptions stated in this document, requires a permit.
GENERAL PERMIT POLICIES (GP)
GP1: The retention and conservation of significant heritage fabric should be a key consideration in the future management of the Flinders Street Railway Station Complex.
Both individually and collectively, elements and areas of significant fabric variously demonstrate and provide evidence of the significance of the place. Accordingly, the retention and conservation of significant fabric and spaces should be a key consideration in planning any works, and in the long-term management of the Complex.
GP2: Those factors which have been identified in the statement of significance as contributing to significance should be considered in, and form the basis of, all future works.
In undertaking any works, consideration should be given to the assessed significance of the place or element and the impact of the works on that significance.
GP3: All future conservation and adaptation works which affect elements of significance should be carried out having regard for the principles of the Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance (The Burra Charter) as amended.
The principles of The Burra Charter provide guidance on the conservation and adaptation of places and elements of cultural heritage significance. They should be referred to when assessing the suitability of any proposed works to Flinders Street Railway Station Complex.
GP4: All future conservation work should be carried out by persons with relevant conservation experience and expertise.
In assessment, specification and execution of preservation, restoration and reconstruction works involving significant heritage fabric should be undertaken by persons with relevant qualifications and/or skills and experience in the area.
Maintenance policies (MP)
MP1: Ongoing maintenance must be made a high priority in the management of the place.
The ongoing maintenance of the Complex should be a priority. Such maintenance should be delivered having regard to the principles established in the Burra Charter and in a manner consistent with the assessed significance of the place and individual elements, and the conservation policy.
MP2: Undertake regular comprehensive surveys of the condition and intactness of the fabric every five years and establish a priority based preventive maintenance programme.
The Flinders Street Railway Station Complex as a whole is in a state which requires the implementation of a programme of reactive maintenance to address immediate failures in the fabric and the development of a preventive programme to address the potential for future failures. The scope and prioritisation of the immediate needs will be dependent upon survey of the fabric, while the preventive programme will include the expected cyclical works such as painting, clearing drains, safety checks and the like. The comprehensive survey should be undertaken at least every five years to ensure that problems can be addressed in a timely fashion.
Alteration and Adaptation Policies (AAP)
AAP1: Where future works are to occur, the approach should first be to conserve significant fabric.
Items of significant fabric include:
. copper roofing
. pressed non-ferrous (probably zinc) metal exterior cladding and mouldings
. Trägerwellblech system flooring/roofing in the Station building and in subways
. Corrugated galvanised iron roofing on platform verandahs and the subway roofs
. facia ripple iron
. iron ridge coping
. pressed metal internal and external wall and ceiling cladding
. pressed metal internal and external mouldings
. plaster internal mouldings
. cement render
. lead glazed Edwardian Majolica plain and lettered wall tiles located in the subways
. blue and green lead glazed Edwardian Majolica wall tiles located at the Degraves St /Central entrance
. lead glazed Edwardian Majolica tiles elsewhere
. 1950s pink wall tiles in Campbell Arcade
. timber block and asphalt flooring
. timber architraves, mouldings and window frames
. timber and parquet flooring
. box skirtings
. cast iron pillars, railings and posts
. cast iron roof trusses
. original brass and steel railings
. nickel plated lead and chromed steel shop window frames
. brass signs and sign remnants
. painted and masonry signs
. lead light and painted and stained glass
. Elizabeth Street tower clock and mechanism
. 3rd floor cupboard giving access to the clock
. indicator clocks
. electric staff machines
. hydronic heaters
. balustrades and railings
. timber kiosk
. timber seats
. notice boards
. mirror in men's toilet in Elizabeth Street Subway
. steel reinforcing floor tiles at parcels dock and siding
. painted finishes (including those under later finishes)
. overhead tensioning and switching structure
. six signal bridges
. money vault on Platform 14 / 1 East
. original round section cast iron columns, and massive rusticated bluestone ashlar piers (some painted) beneath Swanston St
. items in Western basement shops including original door and entrance to the five joined shops together with shop number plates, pressed metal ceilings and some 'WC' areas
. other original materials and fixtures
AAP2: Adaptation of and new works to significant spaces or elements should not detract from the overall cultural significance of the place.
AAP3: Elements and areas of primary significance should be retained and restored and/or reconstructed. Where alteration and adaptation works are proposed, these should be undertaken with minimal impact on the fabric.
As a key guiding principle, areas and elements of primary significance, as the most important, in the first instance should be retained. In these areas also, any missing original fabric in preference should be reinstated or reconstructed where evidence exists as to its earlier state or form. Where alteration or adaptation is proposed it should be soundly justified and executed in a manner which does not diminish the significance of the affected area or element such that it is unacceptably and irreversibly compromised. In considering intervention into areas and elements of primary significance, it is also understood that such works may well be proposed as a consequence of the need to meet the changing requirements of a major operating railway Station. Where works are necessitated on these grounds it is essential that careful consideration is given to ensuring that the ongoing process of change does not ultimately alter the essential character and significance of the place.
AAP4: Works to elements and areas of contributory significance should in preference retain the plan form and as much significant fabric as possible.
Elements which are regarded as being of contributory significance are important to the understanding of the operation of the Flinders Street Railway Station Complex as it originally operated. Adaptation is possible, recognising that the approach should first be to maintain them as much as possible with their original envelope, layout and fabric. In so doing, losses of original fabric necessitated by such changes are minimised.
AAP5: Areas and elements of no significance can be altered and adapted as required.
Works to elements of little or no significance should in preference focus on the removal of unsympathetic and intrusive elements and secondly, should be in sympathy with and contribute to the overall significance of the station.
AAP6: Inaccurate copies of original materials and fixtures should be replaced with high quality replicas.
In some cases significant fabric (listed in AAP1) has been replaced with inaccurate copies. When works are proposed on these in the future, high quality replicas made of the same materials as the original should be used where these can be sourced and should be dated to differentiate them from the original.
Environmental Performance Policy (EPP)
EPP1: Measures to improve the environmental performance of Flinders Street Railway Station Complex should not be implemented such that conservation objectives are unacceptably impacted.
As with most heritage places it can be expected that the environmental performance of Flinders Street Railway Station Complex will be a matter which will warrant consideration in future works. Also it can be expected that issues considered will include the performance of the existing building fabric as related to scope to reduce energy and resources demands, and actions which can be undertaken in support of the production of cleaner energy. Such actions have the potential to require intervention which is destructive of original fabric and compromises or reduces the assessed significance of the place. In contemplating such actions regard should be had to the value of the embodied energy contained within the existing fabric and the ability to balance this contribution against delivering less than optimal performance outcome.
Hazardous Materials Policy (HMP)
HMP1: Where hazardous materials are encountered and if available as an option, an approach of containment and encapsulation is to be preferred over removal.
Considering the age of the Flinders Street Railway Station Complex it is expected that hazardous materials will be encountered on and within the fabric of the place. Accepting that the approach to such materials is governed by regulation and/or standards, where the opportunity exists and the affected element is of significance, the preferred response is one of containment and management ahead of removal.
Use and building Programme Policies (UBPP)
UBPP1: The primary use of Flinders Street Railway Station Complex at street, concourse and platform levels should be as a railway Station. Support functions for that use should in preference be accommodated within the main Station building or in an alternative building located within the station complex.
The Flinders Street Railway Station Complex site has functioned as a railway terminus since 1854 and it is recommended that it should continue to be used as a railway Station and that this function should be readily identifiable and recognisable as the principal reason for its existence. Presently the primary focus of this function is on the publicly accessible areas of the place. Various railway support and operations functions are accommodated within the station building and this is both appropriate and desirable. Any alternative uses proposed for the main station building should be compatible with the ongoing Station use and not require unacceptable levels of intervention to manage the interface between the existing and a new use.
UBPP2: Maintain a clear understanding of the planning and operation of the Flinders Street Railway Station Complex as a whole through the retention of key aspects of access, circulation and the use of public areas.
The Flinders Street Railway Station Complex has a relatively clear programme of entry/exit and circulation which is fundamental to the traditional operation of the place. Desirably and for functional reasons, the legibility of the Station should be maintained.
UBPP3: In considering adaptive reuse options for particular areas within the station building, consideration should be given to historical uses and relationships.
There are two groupings of rooms within the main station building that warrant particular care in considering adaptive reuse. These are the suite of rooms designed for the Victorian Railways Institute on the third floor at the western end of the building, and the first floor dining and refreshment rooms. Given the purpose-designed nature of these groups of rooms, it would be desirable to consider uses that are sympathetic and compatible with these groupings and allow an appreciation of the arrangement and original programme of these areas of the building as well as of the significant fabric within the spaces themselves.
Interpretation policies (IP)
IP1: The heritage values of the Flinders Street Railway Station Complex should be interpreted and promoted, including in areas to which public access is limited.
The Flinders Street Railway Station Complex is self evidently a heritage place and one which like many landmark buildings and sites - it is readily recognised for its heritage values. It is a place, however, where focused active interpretation could add to the experience of users and visitors in a manner that would enhance their understanding of the place and its importance from a heritage perspective. While the publicly accessed areas can be easily observed, other areas and elements remain unseen and could be actively promoted. Such areas and elements include the former Victorian Railways Institute rooms on the fourth level, the suite of pressed metal designs used in wall and ceiling linings, and the stained glass. Passive interpretation could be delivered by way of publications, brochures, guide books and fixed signage, while active interpretation could include tours and open days, and video and other interactive media.
MITRE TAVERNVictorian Heritage Register H0464
MELBOURNE SAVAGE CLUBVictorian Heritage Register H0025
FORMER LONDON CHARTERED BANKVictorian Heritage Register H0022
"AMF Officers" ShedMoorabool Shire
"AQUA PROFONDA" SIGN, FITZROY POOLVictorian Heritage Register H1687